Thursday, November 26, 2015

The Myth of Thanksgiving and Racial Conciliation

Being Native American and living in the United States I am frequently asked about appropriate ways to celebrate Thanksgiving.  I have celebrated Thanksgiving all of my life. Growing up, I have memories of my mother waking up at 5 AM to prepare the turkey to the music of Handel's Messiah. In college, I remember traveling home or visiting the homes of my friends to enjoy a Thanksgiving meal and spend time together. I remember cooking my first Thanksgiving turkey and the countless calls home, asking questions throughout the entire process. And I remember many Thanksgiving feasts celebrated on the Navajo Reservation with friends, family and neighbors over the past decade.

What I don’t remember is the myth.

Throughout the years, there were few, if any, references to the mythological potluck celebrated by Native Americans and Pilgrims back in the "Good ole Days."  When your Thanksgiving table is shared with survivors of Indian Boarding Schools. When nearby canyons, peaks and streets are named after Army officers like Kit Carson, who committed genocidal acts of war so the United States of America could achieve its "Manifest Destiny" of ruling this land from "sea to shining sea." When you are aware that the founding documents of the United States dehumanizes your people as "savages", the myth of Thanksgiving is exposed for the lie that it is.

As a Native man, I love the idea of setting aside a day for giving thanks. I love the time off work to spend with family and friends.  I love pumpkin pie, turkey and mashed potatoes. I love a good football game. And I love the days of turkey sandwiches, soups and casseroles made from the leftovers.

But I hate the myth. And I don't like the idea of a perfectly good holiday being co-opted to appease white guilt. Which, when it comes right down to it, is exactly what the myth of Thanksgiving is about: appeasing white guilt.

The myth of Thanksgiving fabricates a memory of the good ole' days when Natives and European Colonists harmoniously got along.

The myth of Thanksgiving forgets the words of Christopher Columbus who announced back in 1492 that "by the Grace of God and in the Name of Her Majesty Queen Isabella, I am taking possession of these lands."

The myth of Thanksgiving helps a nation of immigrants forget that the "American Dream" is predicated upon an "empty" continent and "free" labor.

The myth of Thanksgiving helps a colonial nation forget that the very land titles for the houses they live in are based on the legal fiction a church doctrine and the racist colonial concept of discovery that assumes the dehumanization of native peoples.

The myth of Thanksgiving helps a nation that stakes its reputation on freedom and equality for "All" to forget that the founding fathers actually had an extremely narrow definition of who was and who was not human.

The myth of Thanksgiving is why we call it "racial reconciliation" when in actuality the healing our country needs would better be termed as "racial conciliation." For when you understand this history you realize that we are not restoring, or rebuilding a previously harmonious relationship. We are settling disputes, dealing with injustices, and just maybe paving the way for the initial building of healthy relationships.

We can have Thanksgiving without the myth. We can give thanks without fabricating a memory. We can make time to sincerely say "Thank you."  But it won't be easy, because giving thanks requires being honest and vulnerable, and that is difficult to do for a nation living in deep denial of its own unjust history. So I would like to suggest a starting point. An analogy that debunks the myth of Thanksgiving and instead initiates a conversation, hopefully moving our country towards "Racial Conciliation."

Being Native American and living in the United States, it feels like our Native communities are an old grandmother who has a very large and very beautiful house. Years ago some people came into our house and locked us upstairs in the bedroom. Today our house is full of people. They’re sitting on our furniture, they're eating our food, they're having a party in our house. They've since come upstairs and unlocked the door to our bedroom but it's much later; we're tired, we're old, we're weak and we're sick, so we can't or we don't come out. But the thing that hurts us the most, the thing that causes us the most pain is that virtually nobody from this party ever comes upstairs, seeks out the grandmother in the bedroom, sits down next to her on the bed, takes her hand and simply says thank you. Thank you for letting us be in your house.

~Mark Charles

Monday, October 12, 2015

The Hypocrisy of a Politically Correct Columbus Day

Flags of the United States of America waved high above the ceremony. On the second Monday of October, 2015 at 11 AM, the National Christopher Columbus Association, in coordination with the National Park Service, celebrated "522 Years of Discovery" by honoring Christopher Columbus at Columbus Plaza in front of Union Station in Washington DC.

In his welcome address, Jamie Keller (Supervisory Park Ranger, National Park Service) said he honored Christopher Columbus because "he went for it." Other speakers from the diplomatic corps of Italy, Spain and the Bahamas, followed and reiterated in some form that Columbus obviously did not "discover America, but…" 

Another speaker attempted to walk this same politically correct line by again mentioning the troubled past, but he then quoted Pope Francis, who just last month excused the United States for 500 years of genocidal history when he told a joint session of Congress "…it is difficult to judge the past by the criteria of the present."

Even President Obama, whose official proclamation was read at this ceremony, got into the act of politically correct acrobatics. He noted how Columbus was "doubted by many of his potential patrons... [but] seized the moment and pursued what he knew to be possible. "

He referenced the troubled history the United States has with indigenous peoples, but went on to say:
"In the years since Columbus's time, the legacy of early explorers has carried on in the wide eyes of aspiring young dreamers and doers, eager to make their own journeys and to continue reaching for the unknown and unlocking new potential."
Such rhetoric made me wonder if the politically correct rules for 2015 prohibited the use of the word discovery in regards to Columbus Day.

But let’s not kid ourselves. Discovery is what this holiday is all about. Discovery is what explains the existence of this "nation of immigrants." Discovery is what justifies the dehumanization and genocide of indigenous peoples. Discovery is even what is referenced as the foundation for land titles by the Supreme Court of the United States of America.

In 1823, two men of European descent were in litigation over a single piece of land. One bought it from a Native tribe and the other bought it from the government. They wanted to know who legally owned it. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court, which stated:
"As they [European colonizing nations] were all in pursuit of nearly the same object, it was necessary, in order to avoid conflicting settlements, and consequent war with each other, to establish a principle, which all should acknowledge as the law by which the right of acquisition, which they all asserted, should be regulated as between themselves. This principle was, that discovery gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority, it was made, against all other European governments, which title might be consummated by possession."
US Supreme Court - Johnson Vs. M'Intosh (1823)
The court went on to state that essentially, native peoples only had the right of occupancy to the land, while Europeans had the right of discovery, and therefore true title to the land.  This ruling, along with a few others, established a case precedent for land titles. A precedent that was referenced by SCOTUS as recently as 2005 (City of Sherrill vs. Oneida Indian Nation of NY).

The challenge the United States is facing today is that because it believes the myth of its own exceptionalism, all it can do is celebrate. There is no public space for admitting its wrongs and mourning its actions. But that is probably what needs to happen.

October 12, 1492 marks a day when the nations of Europe and the early settlers to America got it completely wrong. And instead of desperately searching for something else to celebrate, let’s just call a spade a spade.

The "discovery of America" is a racist colonial concept that assumes the dehumanization of native peoples.

This nation needs to make a choice. Does it continue to honor a man whose claim of “discovery” opened the door for centuries of injustice?  Or does it openly teach that history, mourn those atrocities and commit itself to ensuring that it does not happen again?

At the end of his proclamation President Obama directed "that the flag of the United States be displayed on all public buildings on the appointed day in honor of our diverse history and all who have contributed to shaping this Nation."

In light of this dehumanizing history and in honor of the millions of native peoples who lost lands, cultures, languages and countless lives to the ensuing European onslaught, I think a more appropriate proclamation would be that the second Monday of October be a national day of mourning and a directive given that the flag of the United States of America be flown at half-mast.

Mark Charles

Saturday, October 10, 2015

Why America Needs to Remember Columbus Day

There is a movement across the country to re-appropriate Columbus Day as a Native American Heritage Day or Indigenous Peoples Day. Cities like Seattle, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and others have begun this trend, and I am sure other municipalities will soon follow suit.  However, as a native man, I am wary of such actions. Please don't get me wrong. I am all for honoring the native peoples and Indigenous hosts of Turtle Island, but I am hesitant to do so on October 12.

You CANNOT discover lands that are already inhabited. But that is exactly what Christopher Columbus, the nations of Europe, early American colonists, and the United States of America purported to do! 

I am often invited to speak on this topic, and, to demonstrate my point, I ask members of the audience to put their wallets, money clips, smart phones, or purses out in front of them, so that I may walk by and "discover" these items.

The idea that Christopher Columbus "discovered" America is a racist colonial concept that assumes the dehumanization of native peoples. 

Some Americans are becoming increasingly uncomfortable with the idea of celebrating Columbus Day. However, when you are a citizen of a nation that believes in its own exceptionalism, you can only celebrate. There is no room for mourning and admitting the fact that you, and your founding fathers, were wrong.  But that is exactly what the United States needs to do.

Schools in Germany are required to teach the holocaust, so that they will never repeat it. If America does not keep its unjust history in front of itself, it will never learn, never grow, and never mature. If America merely replaces the celebration of its racist roots of discovery, with another celebration, it is destined to repeat its failures.

So I propose that we keep October 12 as Columbus Day but turn it into a day of honest education, deep reflection, and national mourning. A day to remind ourselves that October 12, 1492 was the first day of 500 years of dehumanization, theft, war, genocide and even extinction for countless tribes, languages, cultures, and for millions and millions of people.  This was a day when the nations of Europe, colonists, and the United States of America got it wrong.

Mark Charles

Thursday, September 24, 2015

Disappointment...Deep Disappointment

I had been anticipating Pope Francis' speech to a joint session of Congress ever since I learned it was planned. From the beginning of his papacy, Pope Francis has established himself as a fearless advocate for the least, and an unapologetic prophet to both the church and the nations. A leader who shunned the glitter of the Apostolic Palace for the simplicity of a small guesthouse. A peoples Pope who rebuked the rich and ate with the poor, who scolded the extravagance of the industrialized world as he drove through it in a humble and fuel efficient Fiat. Someone who visited with prisoners, prayed with families and walked with indigenous children.

What would he say?  What words would he have for the Congress of the most financially wealthy, militarily powerful, commercially industrialized, colonial nation in the history of the world? The possibilities seemed endless.

We recently moved from the Rez to DC where one of the benefits is that many historic events take place literally in your back yard. So I went down to the Mall and joined thousands of others who congregated there in order to watch the speech on the jumbo-tron displays that were setup.

The atmosphere was electric. The west lawn of the US Capitol was at capacity and the grass on the mall was also quickly filling. Cheers could be heard when the speech started and soon everyone was attentively listening to the words of Pope Francis as he addressed a joint session of the 114th Congress of the United States of America.

My anticipation began changing to nervousness early in the speech, when the work of Congress was compared to the work of the Biblical leader Moses. Immediately I recalled another speech, just a few months ago, by Benjamin Netanyahu, the Prime Minister of Israel, in front of a joint session of this same Congress. He was here to speak about his fear of the impending nuclear deal the United States was negotiating with Iran. His fear was so great, that in his speech he offered to share the covenant God established with Israel (in the Old Testament) with the United States. He did this by proclaiming that the "United States and Israel share a common destiny, the destiny of promised lands…"

"Promised lands" are troubling for the indigenous peoples who inhabit them. One does not need to read far into the Biblical book of Joshua to learn that Promised lands for one nation literally means God ordained genocide for another. So by implication, in sharing Israel's covenant of "Promised Lands" with the US, Prime Minister Netanyahu was granting a divine pardon to the United States of America for the genocide which this country perpetrated against the indigenous peoples of these lands.

But Pope Francis wouldn't do that. Would he?

His comparison to Moses was primarily regarding the establishment of laws and not in direct reference to "Promised lands." But still I was nervous.

Next Pope Francis invoked "three sons and a daughter of this land, four individuals and four dreams."  Again, I got nervous, not as much by the names he invoked, but by his use of the word "dreams."  You see, America is built on dreams.  It is a nation of promise. But why? Why is there an "American dream" and not a French Dream, a UK Dream, or a Belgium Dream?  That is because those countries do not sit on lands that were "discovered.” Every year the United States celebrates that in 1492 Christopher Columbus "discovered" America. But how can you discover lands that were already inhabited? You can't, unless you first dehumanize those who were here prior.

The discovery of America is a racist colonial concept that requires the dehumanization of indigenous peoples.

And discovery and slavery are why America is the land of "opportunity." The American dream is predicated upon an empty continent and free labor. And Pope Francis was building on the theme of America's dreams.

My nervousness grew.

About half way through his speech, Pope Francis mentioned the indigenous peoples of this land. My heart jumped. I was nervous, but eager. This was it. Here was the section. What would he say? What sin would he address? The Catholic Church's Doctrine of Discovery? The colonialism of Europe? The stolen lands and broken treaties of the United States?

Congress, the nation, even the world was listening.

Speak Pope Francis! Lift up the voices of the oppressed! Use your global pulpit to speak truth to the nations!

I waited in anticipation…
"Tragically, the rights of those who were here long before us were not always respected. For those peoples and their nations, from the heart of American democracy, I wish to reaffirm my highest esteem and appreciation. Those first contacts were often turbulent and violent, but it is difficult to judge the past by the criteria of the present."
What??? Did I hear him right???

"…it is difficult to judge the past by the criteria of the present."

My heart sank. My body went numb. I could not believe my ears. Pope Francis was standing on the world stage dismissing the Catholic Church's devastating Doctrine of Discovery.

The people's Pope was standing before a joint session of the 114th Congress of the United States of America excusing them for their genocidal history against the indigenous peoples of Turtle Island.

"…it is difficult to judge the past by the criteria of the present."

Those words are still ringing in my ears.

"…it is difficult to judge the past by the criteria of the present."

Disappointment. Deep disappointment.

Mark Charles

Saturday, August 22, 2015

Immigration Reform and the Birthright of American Citizenship

On Monday August 18, Donald Trump released his Immigration Reform proposal. One of the more interesting components of his suggested policy is to end our country's practice of birthright citizenship, which is the granting of citizenship to anyone who is born within our borders. As has been the pattern throughout his entire campaign, the elevated rhetoric of his proposal drew a line in the sand and served as a lightning rod in the broader national dialogue. Other GOP candidates who are also known for their controversial statements, like Ted Cruz and Ben Carson, have aligned themselves with Mr. Trump and echoed his call to end birthright citizenship. While on the other end of the political spectrum, candidates and immigration reform advocates have pounced on this proposal, decrying it as racist, and specifically targeting immigrants of color from our southern borders. Some voices have gone even deeper and discussed the historical roots of birthright citizenship noting that it was adopted from a common practice in English law and affirmed in our Constitution through the 14th Amendment. The same amendment that served as a reversal of the Dred Scott ruling, which intended to keep blacks from attaining US citizenship.

However, there is another component of the birthright citizenship discussion that is sorely missing from both sides of this debate.

“Under what authority is the birthright of US citizenship rooted?”

Statue in Grant Park in Chicago, IL
"To Christopher Columbus Discoverer of America:
'By the grace of God and in the Name of her majesty
Queen Isabella, I am taking possession of this land.'
October 2, 1492"
Beginning with Christopher Columbus in 1492, the lands of North and South America were “discovered” and colonized by the nations of Europe who were armed with a doctrine of the Catholic Church. Essentially, this “doctrine of discovery” stated that European nations had the right to discover, exploit and gain profit from any lands (and people) not ruled by Christian rulers.

Common sense tells us that you can only discover lands which are uninhabited. Otherwise your actions would more correctly be classified as stealing. So claiming the right of discovery over lands that are inhabited requires dehumanizing the people who are already there.

 In 1823, as a very young United States of America was struggling to create a legal framework that justified its existence in lands it had stolen and committed genocide to inhabit, the Doctrine of Discovery was used as the legal grounds for land titles.
"As they [European colonizing nations] were all in pursuit of nearly the same object, it was necessary, in order to avoid conflicting settlements, and consequent war with each other, to establish a principle, which all should acknowledge as the law by which the right of acquisition, which they all asserted, should be regulated as between themselves. This principle was, that discovery gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority, it was made, against all other European governments, which title might be consummated by possession."
(1823 United States Supreme Court - Johnson v. M'Intosh)
In plain English, what the Supreme Court said is that any European foreigner who was here before any other European foreigner, could discover land, claim title to it, and take possession of it for their respective nations. By using the language of discovery instead of the language of theft, the dehumanization of Native peoples through the discovery of our lands was established by the Supreme Court as the legal precedent for land titles. And initially in this country, the right to vote, a fundamental right of any US citizen, was based on land ownership.

The birthright of American citizenship is rooted in the racist concept of discovery.

As a Native man, I am definitely not opposed to the idea of reexamining this dehumanizing legal construct. However, I am quite certain that is not the conversation Mr. Trump had in mind when he articulated his immigration policy.  But if our nation was honest, on both sides of the political aisle, the mere mention of birthright citizenship in reference to immigration reform should generate some very awkward dialogue regarding the foundations of our nation, and who is and who is not properly documented.

Statue near US Capitol in Washington, DC
"To the memory of Christopher Columbus
Whose high faith and indomitable courage
gave to mankind a New World."
Immigration reform is an incredibly complex issue for a colonial nation of immigrants to address.  And the highly partisan and politically charged environment of a Presidential primary campaign is definitely not the proper place for such a conversation. This dialogue will require collective wisdom, broad participation, incredible humility, and an abundance of raw and honest reflection.

It is my firm belief that any attempt to comprehensively and justly reform our nation’s immigration law must include the voices of the indigenous peoples of this land. Without Natives at the table, all we have is one generation of undocumented immigrants trying to decide what to do with another generation of undocumented immigrants, and there is no integrity in the conversation.

This past year the Black Lives Matter movement has worked to expose some of the hidden racial bias of our nation. And the racially charged rhetoric of Donald Trump’s presidential campaign is literally forcing our country to make a decision - do we keep racism as our national implicit bias, or do we allow him to champion it as our explicit bias?

I would like to offer a third alternative.

Let’s deal honestly and directly with our nation’s unjust racial bias.

Georges Erasmus, an aboriginal leader from Canada said, “Where common memory is lacking, where people do not share in the same past, there can be no real community. Where community is to be formed, common memory must be created."

I think this quote gets to the heart of our problems regarding race in the United States. As a nation we do not have a common memory. We have a dominant culture that remembers a history of discovery, expansion, opportunity, and manifest destiny. While many of our minority communities have a lived experience of genocide, slavery, broken treaties, stolen lands, relocation, Jim crow laws, boarding schools, segregation, internment camps, mass incarceration, empty apologizes, and unprecedented institutional violence.

The original injustice of the United States of America is the Doctrine of Discovery. It was this doctrine that allowed the nations of Europe to colonize Africa and enslave African people. And it was this same doctrine that allowed Columbus to get lost at sea, land in a “new world” inhabited by millions, and claim to have discovered it.

The Doctrine of Discovery is a systemically racist doctrine that assumes the dehumanization of natives and blacks. And we have embedded this thinking deep into the foundations of our nation. Our Declaration of Independence perpetuates it. Our Constitution is influenced by it. Our Supreme Court references it. And the memory of our dominant culture is blinded by it.

It is the Doctrine of Discovery that keeps our nation from forming a common memory and, therefore, from experiencing true community. As individuals, and as a nation, we need to acknowledge it. Study it. Teach it. Renounce it. And ultimately, turn from it.

Until we do, we have little hope of ever becoming the just and freedom-loving nation we publicly proclaim to be.

Other Resources:
  1. On September 4, 2015 a documentary on the Doctrine of Discovery, produced by Sheldon Wolfchild and co-directed by Steven Newcomb (author: Pagans in the Promised Land) is scheduled to be publicly released. Visit 38 Plus 2 Productions to learn more about this film.
  2. In a blog article “The Doctrine of Discovery- A Buried Apology and an Empty Chair” I educate about the Doctrine of Discovery and propose the idea for a “Truth Commission,” a series of national conferences beginning in Washington DC in December of 2016. These conferences would attempt to create a common memory through educating people on the Doctrine of Discovery and teaching an accurate history of the United States of America. It would also provide a platform for survivors of Indian boarding schools and other historical injustices to share their stories. For more information you can visit my website (, follow on TwitterFacebookYouTube or Instagram (user name wirelesshogan) or subscribe to the “Truth Commission” email list.

Friday, August 14, 2015

August 14 - National Navajo Code Talkers Day

August 14 is National Navajo Code Talkers Day and it is good that, as a nation, we remember and honor these hundreds of courageous men for their service to our country. On the Navajo Reservation, in Window Rock AZ, there is a statue erected in their honor with a plaque commemorating their service. I would like to share with you the words of this plaque and the names of each of the Code Talkers, but first I would like to give you some of the broader historical context that these men literally came out of.

Boarding Schools:
Indian Boarding Schools were the brainchild of an army Captain and Indian fighter named Richard Henry Pratt. The first school was named Carlisle Indian Industrial School and was opened in a deserted military base in Carlisle Pennsylvania in 1869.
"A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man."
- Captain Richard Henry Pratt
In 1893 mandatory Indian Education became law and Chester Nez, one of the original 29 Navajo Code Talkers, was educated in an Indian Boarding School in Fort Defiance AZ. Here are some of his words describing his boarding school experience as a child.
Snow fell softly outside the dormitory windows. Loud whispering came from two beds away. Navajo. I'd been caught speaking Navajo three days before. The Pima matron brushed my teeth with brown fels-Naptha soap. I still couldn't taste food, only the acrid, bitter taste of lye soap. Teachers at the school were encouraged to be strict and the smaller children were frequently  targeted by slaps or kicks. But the lingering taste of the soap was worse than either of those punishments.
The knowledge of constant danger sat lodged in the pit of my stomach like a rock. I tried by best to answer questions correctly, but never knew when a matron would strike. They watched, their dark cold eyes waiting for us to make a mistake, to do something wrong.
I was always afraid.
Chester Nez (from his book "Code Talker") 

"Indian Boarding Schools remained in operation in the United States as late as the 1990s. The number of Native American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools."  (Wikipedia)

Citizenship and Voting Rights:
In 1924 the US Congress passed the Indian Citizenship act which declared all non-citizens Indians born in the US to be citizens. However because voting was considered a states right, the states of Arizona and New Mexico kept Indians disenfranchised until 1948.

Thus, because the Navajo reservation is located in the Southwest, primarily within the states of Arizona and New Mexico, when the Navajo Code Talkers were serving this country, they did not even have the right to vote.

Please keep this history in mind as you read the following words:

The Legendary Navajo Code Talkers

During World War II, in the South Pacific Theater, the Japanese were extremely proficient at breaking into military radio communications and transmissions. Thus they were able to decipher U.S. Military codes. The U.S. Armed forces needed to find a secure method of communication if they were to have any chance of defeating a cleaver and intelligent foe. To counter the cleverness of the Japanese cryptographers, 29 Navajo Marines were recruited to devise a secret military code using their native language. By war's end, there were over 400 Navajo Marines serving as code talkers and the code vocabulary had doubled. So successful was this innovative code that the Marine Corps commanders credited it with saving the lives of countless American Marines and soldiers. It enabled their success engagements throughout the Pacific Theater which included the battles for Guadalcanal, Wake Island, Tarawa, Saipan, Guam, Midway, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. The code paved the way to early victory for the allied forces in the South Pacific. Major Howard M. Conner, 5th Marine Division Signal Officer stationed in Iwo Jima commented on the gallantry of the Navajo Code Talkers: "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would not have taken Iwo Jima."

Far from their homes, these brave young Navajo Marines served our nation with honor and dignity. The tale of their exploits remained a closely guarded secret for decades in the event that the Navajo Code Talkers unique talents would be needed again. In 1968 the Navajo code was finally declassified. In July 2001, at the National Capital Rotunda, United States President, the honorable George W. Bush, awarded the Congressional Gold Medals to the first 29 Navajo Code Talkers, their surviving spouses or children. In November 2001 at the Navajo Nation capital of Window Rock Arizona, the Congressional Silver Medals were awarded to the rest of the Navajo Code Talkers, their surviving spouses or children. Sadly, many of the Navajo Code Talkers have passed on never knowing of the honor a grateful nation has bestowed upon them. The Navajo Code Talkers will never be forgotten.

Dine' Bizaad Yee Atah Naayee' Yik'eh Deesdlii

Navajo Code Talkers
Akee, Dan
Alfred, Johnnie (or Johnny)
Allen, Perry
Anderson, Edward B.
Anthony, Franklin A.
Apache, Jimmie
Arviso, Bennie
Ashley, Regis
Augustine, John
Ayze, Lewis Franklin
Babiya, Don
Bahe, Henry Jr.
Bahe, Woody
Baldwin, Benjamin C.
Beard, Harold
Becenti, Ned D.
Becenti, Roy Lewis
Bedoni, Sidney
Begay, Carlos
Begay, Charley (or Charlie) Tsosie (or Sosie)
Begay, Charlie Y.(or H.)
Begay, E.
Begay, George K.
Begay, Henry
Begay, Jerry Claschee Jr.
Begay, Jimmie M.
Begay, Joe N.
Begay, Lee H.
Begay, Leo B.
Begay, Leonard
Begay, Notah
Begay, Paul
Begay, Roy
Begay, Samuel Hosteen Nez
Begay, Thomas H.
Begay, Walter
Begay, Walter (or Willie) Kesoli
Begay, Wilson J.
Begaye, Fleming D. Sr.
Begody, David Maize
Begody, Roger
Belinda, Wilmer
Belone, Harry Sr.
Benally, Harrison Lee
Benally, Harry
Benally, Jimmie L.
Benally, John Ashi
Benally, Johnson Delwashie
Benally, Samuel
Bennallie (or Benallalie), Jimmie D.
Bentone (or Benton), Willie Sr.
Bernard, John
Betone, Lloyd
Bia, Andrew
Billey, Wilfred E.
Billie, Ben
Billiman, Howard Jr.
Billison, Samuel
Billy, Sam Jones
Bitse, Peter John
Bitsie, Wilsie H.
Bitsoi, Delford E. (or Baldwin)
Bizard, Jesse J.
Black, Jesse
Blatchford, Paul H.
Bluehorse, David
Bowman, John Henry
Bowman, Robert
Brown, Arthur C.
Brown, Clarence Paul
Brown, Cosey Stanley
Brown, John Jr.
Brown, N.A.
Brown, Tsosie Herman
Brown, William Tully
Buck, Wilford
Burke, Bobby
Burnie, Jose Jr.
Burnside, Francis A.
Burr, Sandy
Cadman, William
Calleditto (or Calledito), Andrew
Carroll, Oscar Tsosie
Cattle Chaser, Dennis
Cayedito, Del
Cayedito, Ralph
Charley, Carson Bahe
Charlie, Sam Sr.
Chase, Frederick
Chavez, George Sr.
Chee, Guy Claus
Chee, John
Clah, Stewart
Clark, Jimmie
Claw, Thomas
Cleveland, Benjamin H.
Cleveland, Billie
Cleveland, Ned
Cody, Leslie
Cohoe, James Charles
Craig, Bob Etsitty
Crawford, Eugene Roanhorse
Crawford, Karl Kee (or Lee)
Cronemeyer, Walter
Crosby, Billy
Curley, David
Curley, Rueben
Dale, Ray
Damon, Anson Chandler
Damon, Lowell Smith
Davis, Tully
Deel, Martin Dale
Dehiya, Dan
Dennison, George H.
Dennison, Leo
Dixon, James
Dodge, Jerome Cody
Dooley, Richard
Doolie, John
Doolie, Richardson
Draper, Nelson
Draper, Teddy Sr.
Etsicitty, Kee
Etsitty, Deswood
Evans (or Evas), Harold
Foghorn, Ray
Foster, Harold Y.
Fowler, King
Francisco, Jimmy
Freeman, Edwin
Gatewood, Joseph (or Joe) Patrick
George, William M.
Gishal (or Gishall), Milton Miller
Gleason, Jimmie (or James)
Goldtooth (or Gooldtooth), Emmett
Goodluck, John V.
Goodman, Billie
Gorman, Carl Nelson
Gorman, Tom
Gray, Harvey
Grayson, Bill Lewis
Greymountain, Yazzie
Guerito, Billy Lewis
Gustine, Tully
Guy, Charles
Harding, Ben Williams (or William)
Harding, Jack W.
Hardy, Tom
Harrison, Emmett (or Tom)
Haskie, Ross
Hawthorne, Roy Orville
Haycock, Bud
Hemstreet, Leslie
Henry, Albert
Henry, Edmund Juan Sr.
Henry, Kent Carl
Hickman, Dean (or Dan) Junian
Holiday, Calvin
Holiday (or Holliday), Samuel T.
Housewood, Johnson
Housteen, Dennie
Howard, Ambrose
Hubbard, Arthur Jose
Hudson, Lewey
Hunter, Tom
Ilthma, Oscar B.
Jake, H.
James, Benjamin
James, Billy
James, George B.
Jenson, Nevy
Johle, Elliott
John, Charlie Tsihi
John, Edmund
John, Leroy
Johnny, Earl
Johnson, Deswood Remy
Johnson, Francis Taylor
Johnson, Johnnie (or Johnny)
Johnson, Peter
Johnson, Ralph
Jones, Jack
Jones, Tom H.
Jordan, David
Jose, Teddy
June, Allen Dale
June, Floyd
Keams (or Kearns), Percy
Keedah, Wilson
Kellwood, Joe (or Joseph) H.
Kescoli, Alonzo
Ketchum, Bahe
Kien, William
King, Jimmy Kelly Sr.
Kinlahcheeny, Paul
Kinsel, John Sr.
Kirk, George Harlan Sr.
Kirk, Leo
Kiyaani, Mike
Kontz, Rex T.
Lapahie, Harrison Sr.
Largo, James
Leonard, Alfred
Leroy, George (or John)
Leuppe, Edward
Little, Keith Morrison
Lopez, Tommy K.
MacDonald, Peter
Malone, Max
Malone, Rex T.
Malone, Robert
Maloney, James
Maloney, Paul Edward
Manuelito, Ben Charles
Manuelito, Ira
Manuelito, James C. Sr.
Manuelito, Johnny R.
Manuelito, Peter R.
Marianito, Frank
Mark, Robert
Martin, Matthew
Martinez, Jose
McCab+B201e, William
McCraith, Archibald
Mike, King Paul
Miles, General
Moffitt, Tom Clah
Morgan, Herbert
Morgan, Jack C.
Morgan, Ralph
Morgan, Sam
Morris, Joe
Moss, George Alfred
Multine, Oscar Phillip
Murphy, Calvin Henderson
Nagurski, Adolph (or Alolph) N.
Nahkai, James Thomas Jr.
Nakaidinae, Peter
Napa, Martin
Naswood, Johnson
Negale, Harding
Newman, Alfred K. Sr.
Nez, Arthur
Nez, Chester
Nez, Freeland
Nez, Howard Hosteen Sr.
Nez, Israel Hosteen
Nez, Jack
Nez, Sidney
Notah, Roy (or Ray)
Notah, Willie A.
O'Dell, Billy
Oliver, Lloyd
Oliver, Willard V.
Otero (or Ottero), Tom
Paddock, Layton Sr.
Pahe, Robert D.
**Palmer, Joe (originally Balmer Slowtalker)
Parrish, Paul A.
Patrick, Amos Roy
Patterson, David E.
Peaches, Alfred James
Peshlakai, Sam
Pete, Frank Danny (or Denny)
Peterson, Joe (or Jose) Sr.
Pinto, Gual (or Guy)
Pinto, John
Platero, Richard
Preston, Jimmie
Price, Joe Frederick
Price, Wilson Henry
Reed, Sam
Roanhorse, Harry C.
Sage, Andy
Sage, Denny
Salabiye, Jerry Edgar Sr.
Sandoval, Merril Leo
Sandoval, Peter Paul
Sandoval, Samuel
Sandoval, Thomas
Scott, John
Sells, John Captain
Shields, Freddie
Shorty, Dooley
Shorty, Robert Tom
Silversmith, Joe A.
Silversmith, Sammy
Singer, Oscar Jones
Singer, Richard B.
Singer, Tom
Skeet, Wilson Chee
Slinky, Richard T.
Slivers, Albert James
**Slowtalker, Balmer (later Joe Palmer)
Smiley, Arcenio
Smith, Albert
Smith, Enock
Smith, George
Smith, Raymond R.
Smith, Samuel Jesse (or Jessie) Sr.
Soce, George Bill
Sorrell, Benjamin G. Sr.
Spencer, Harry
Tabaha, Johnnie (or Johnie) Sr.
Tah, Alfred
Tah, Edward
Talley, John
Tallsalt, Bert
Thomas, Edward
Thomas, Richard Sr.
Thompson, Claire M. Sr.
Thompson, Everett (or Everitt) M.
Thompson, Francis Tso
Thompson, Frank T.
Thompson, Nelson S.
Todacheene, Carl Leo
Todacheenie, Frank Carl
Tohe, Benson
Toledo, Bill Henry
Toledo, Curtis
Toledo, Frank
Toledo, Preston
Toledo, Willie
Towne, Joseph H.
Towne, Zane
Tracy, Peter
Tso, Chester Housteen
Tso, Howard Benedict
Tso, Paul Edward
Tso, Samuel N.
Tsosie, Alfred
Tsosie, Cecil Gorman
Tsosie, Collins D.
Tsosie, David W.
Tsosie, Harry
Tsosie, Howard
Tsosie, Kenneth
Tsosie, Samuel Sr.
Tsosie, Woody B.
Upshaw, John
Upshaw, William R.
Vandever, Joe Sr.
Visalia, Buster
Wagner, Oliver
Walley, Robert (or Roberts)
Werito, John
Whitman, Lyman Jimmie
Willeto (or Willetto), Frank (or Frankie) Chee Jr.
Williams, Alex
Williams, Kenneth
Willie, George Boyd
Willie, John W. Jr.
Wilson, William Dean
Woodty, Clarence Bahe (or Bahi)
Yazza, Peter
Yazza, Vincent
Yazzie, Charlie
Yazzie, Clifton
Yazzie, Daniel
Yazzie, Eddie Melvin
Yazzie, Edison Kee
Yazzie, Felix
Yazzie, Francis
Yazzie, Frank Harold
Yazzie, Harding
Yazzie (or Yazhe), Harrison A.
Yazzie, Joe Shorty
Yazzie, John
Yazzie, Justine D.
Yazzie, Lemuel Bahe
Yazzie, Ned
Yazzie, Pahe D.
Yazzie, Peter
Yazzie, Raphael D.
Yazzie, Robert H.
Yazzie, Sam
Yazzie, William
Yellowhair, Leon
Yellowhair, Stanley
Yellowman, Howard Thomas
Yoe, George Edward
Zah, Henry
(source Lapahie)

Ahe'hee' shi'chei doo shi'nali

Mark Charles

Thursday, July 23, 2015

The stealing of Oak Flat and the trauma of the Doctrine of Discovery

On December 19, 2014 House Resolution 3979, the 2015 National Defense Authorization Act was

signed into law. The word "Apache" appears 29 times throughout the pages of this law. Most frequently used to refer to Apache helicopters. However, on page 442 the term "Apache" refers to something that has absolutely nothing to do with helicopters. On page 442, Section 3003 is titled “Southeast Arizona land exchange and conservation” and there the word Apache is used in reference to sacred Apache lands.

The Apache people have worked successfully for years to keep these sacred lands off limits to mining companies. But a last minute rider buried in this massive, must pass, Defense bill by Arizona Senators McCain and Flake changed that. Through this law, Resolution Copper, whose parent company’s affiliates are campaign contributors to Senator John McCain, was given Apache lands for the purpose of mining.

How did this happen?

What gives the United State senators from a state that is barely 100 years old the right to give away lands which the Apache people have held sacred for centuries?

That 'right' is taken from another piece of buried history, known as the Doctrine of Discovery. The Doctrine of Discovery is a series of Papal Bulls written in the 15th century that is essentially the church in Europe saying to the nations of Europe "where ever you go, whatever lands you find not ruled by Christian rulers, those people are less than human and the land is yours for the taking." It was the Doctrine of Discovery that allowed European Nations to colonize the continent of Africa and enslave the African people. It was also the Doctrine of Discovery that allowed Christopher Columbus to get lost at sea, land in a "new world" inhabited by millions and claim to have 'discovered' it. Because his doctrine told him that we were not people and, therefore, this land was empty.

Over the years the Doctrine of Discovery has become embedded into the very fabric of our nation. In 1823 the United States Supreme Court referenced the Doctrine of Discovery in the case Johnson vs. M'Intosh. Two men of European descent were in litigation over a piece of land. One party purchased it from a native tribe and the other party purchased it from the government and they wanted to know who owned it. In reviewing the case the Supreme Court essentially stated that based on the Doctrine of Discovery native people only have the right of occupancy to the land while Europeans have the right of Discovery and therefore true title to the land. This case became part of Supreme Court case precedent regarding land titles and was referenced by the court as recently as 2005.

So it should not surprise anyone that in 2014 the Congress of this young nation felt no qualms about passing a bill giving away lands held sacred by the Apache people to a mining company from two foreign colonial countries: The United Kingdom and Australia.

How often does this happen?

While I do not make it a practice to read every Defense Department Appropriations bill passed by our Congress, I am aware of at least one other rider inserted into such a bill. On December 19, 2009, Congress passed House Resolution 3326, the 2010 Department of Defense Appropriations Act. Buried on page 45 of this 67 page bill, Section 8113 is titled “Apology to Native Peoples of the United States.” What follows is a seven bullet point apology that mentions no specific tribe, no specific treaty and no specific injustice. It essentially says; native people had some nice land, US citizens didn’t take it very politely, we’re sorry for some of that history, but that’s in the past so let’s just call it all of our lands and take care of it together. And then it ends with a disclaimer stating that nothing in this section is legally binding.

To date this apology has not been announced, publicized or read by the White House or by Congress.

But on December 19, 2012 over 150 people from throughout the country gathered in front of the US Capitol to host a public reading of this bill and the apology contained therein.

Why are these actions buried?

That answer is simple. Trauma.

The United States of America has built its reputation on being a freedom loving nation who proclaims "all men are created equal." So when they act in a way that is legal by their standards but in complete contrast to their image, it is traumatic. It is traumatizing to realize that maintaining the status quo requires perpetuating the dehumanizing foundations of our nation. It is embarrassing and painful to publicly admit that our present day leaders must participate in the racist systems that the founding fathers put in place as they built their biased version of a “more perfect union.” So instead, Congress buries their actions and hides their words deep within their own bureaucracy in an effort to save face and cover their shame.

What do we do?

I often tell people that being Native American and living in the United States, it feels like our indigenous peoples are an old grandmother who lives in a large and very beautiful house. Years ago, some people came into our house and they locked us upstairs in the bedroom. Today, our house is full of people. They are sitting on our furniture. They are eating our food. They are having a party in our house. They have since unlocked the door to our bedroom but it is much later and we are tired, old, weak and sick; so we can't or we don't come out. But the thing that is the most hurtful and that causes us the most pain, is that virtually no one from this party ever comes upstairs, acknowledges our presence, sits down next to us on the bed, takes our hand, and simply says, "Thank you. Thank you for letting us be in your house."

To everyone who showed up in Washington DC. To everyone who supported #ApacheStronghold along their journey. To everyone who signed the petitions exposing the actions of our Congress. To everyone who is going to call their congressional representative and ask them to support House Resolution 2811, returning Oak Flat to the Apache people...

We want to say; “We’re proud of you.”

We thank you and are proud of you for standing with us, the indigenous hosts of this land as we help our congressional leaders and the broader nation deal with the trauma that comes from being confronted with the dehumanizing declarations they've made, the racist laws they've passed and the unjust actions they've buried.

George Erasmus, an Aboriginal leader once said, "Where common memory is lacking, where people do not share in the same past, there can be no real community. Where community is to be formed, common memory must be created."

I think this quote gets to the heart of our nation's challenges regarding race. Much of the true history of our nation has been buried, and, therefore, we struggle greatly to have real community. But when standing together, when refusing to allow our leaders to bury their injustices, when dealing head on with the trauma that plagues our nation, when working together to create a common memory, we are planting the seeds to begin to change that.


I originally wrote the above remarks to be read at the Apache Stronghold rally and protest in DC on July 22, 2015. However due to time restraints I was asked to pair my remarks down to 2 minutes.  So I did not have the opportunity to speak these remarks at the event, but I still wanted to share them because I am convinced that unless our nation acknowledges and deals with the Doctrine of Discovery, injustices like the stealing of Oak Flat will continue to occur.

In my blog article “The Doctrine of Discovery- A Buried Apology and an Empty Chair” I educate about the Doctrine of Discovery and propose the idea for a “Truth Commission,” a series of national conferences beginning in Washington DC in December of 2016. These conferences would attempt to create a common memory through educating people on the Doctrine of Discovery and teaching an accurate history of the United States of America. It would also provide a platform for survivors of Indian boarding schools to share the stories of their experiences. For more information you can visit my website (, follow me on Twitter, Facebook, YouTube or Instagram (user name wirelesshogan) or subscribe to the “Truth Commission” email list.